Utilização de microalgas para o tratamento de efluentes e produção de biocombustível: uma revisão

Autores

  • Sueilha Ferreira de Andrade de Paula Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
  • Bruna Maria Emerenciano das Chagas Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
  • Renata Araújo Mendonça Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22292/mas.v12i25.1102

Resumo

O aquecimento global é potencializado pelas emissões dos gases geradores do Efeito Estufa (GEE), em especial o CO2, sendo um grande problema que tem preocupado ambientalistas no mundo todo. Atualmente, as microalgas vêm sendo apontadas como potencial para a biofixação do CO2, pois no cultivo de microalga ocorre a mitigação do CO2 e a produção de biomassa rica em compostos de alto valor econômico agregado. Esses seres apresentam alta capacidade fotossintética e taxa de crescimento maior que a dos vegetais superiores, sendo capazes de duplicar sua biomassa em um dia e não seguindo o regime de safras, podendo ser cultivadas em meio salino simples, sem demandar irrigação, herbicidas ou pesticidas. Porém, o cultivo de microalgas para produção de biomassa ainda é oneroso devido a uma abundância de nutrientes inorgânicos utilizados no meio de cultivo. Estudos vêm mostrando que as microalgas podem ser cultivadas em efluentes industriais, com a capacidade de assimilar os compostos orgânicos e inorgânicos presentes no meio, tratando o efluente e produzindo biomassa com um custo mais baixo. A biomassa tem uma vasta aplicação, incluindo a produção de biocombustíveis. As microalgas apresentam grande potencial para produção de biocombustíveis, incluindo biodiesel, biogás, bio-óleo, entre outros. Nesse sentido, este estudo pretende fazer uma revisão bibliográfica dos processos de produção de biomassa de microalgas em efluentes e suas aplicações na produção de biocombustível como uma alternativa sustentável, tanto para tratar o efluente, quanto para produzir biocombustíveis de forma que minimize as emissões de CO2.

Palavras-chave: microalgas; resíduos; biorremediação; biocombustíveis.

Abstract

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can make global warming worse, especially CO2, a major problem that has concerned environmentalists around the world. Currently, microalgae have been identified as having the potential for CO2 biofixation. In the cultivation of microalgae, CO2 mitigation occurs, along with the production of biomass rich in compounds with high economic value. These beings have a high photosynthetic capacity and a higher growth rate than higher plants, are capable of doubling their biomass in one day, do not follow a cropping regime, and can be cultivated in a simple saline medium without requiring irrigation, herbicides or pesticides. However, the cultivation of microalgae for biomass production is still costly due to the large amounts of inorganic nutrients used in the cultivation medium. Studies have shown that microalgae can be cultivated in industrial effluents, being able to assimilate organic and inorganic compounds present in the environment, treating the effluent and producing biomass at a lower cost. Biomass has a wide range of applications, including the production of biofuels. Microalgae have great potential for the production of biofuels, including biodiesel, biogas and bio-oil, not to mention other products. This study aims to carry out a bibliographical review of the production processes for the cultivation of microalgae biomass in effluents and their applications in the production of biofuel as a sustainable alternative for both treating the effluent and producing biofuels in a way that minimizes CO2 emissions.

Keywords: microalgae; residues; bioremediation; biofuels.

Resumen

El calentamiento global es maximizado por las emisiones de los gases de Efecto Invernadero (GEI), en especial el CO2, siendo un gran problema que ha preocupado ambientalistas en todo el mundo. Actualmente, se señala las microalgas como potencial para la biofijación del CO2. En el cultivo de microalga ocurre la mitigación del CO2 y la producción de biomasa rica en compuestos de alto valor económico agregado. Esos seres presentan alta capacidad fotosintética y tasa de crecimiento superior a la de los vegetales superiores, siendo capaces de duplicar su biomasa en un día, no siguen régimen de cosechas, y se los puede cultivar en entorno salino simple, sin demandar irrigación, herbicidas o pesticidas. Sin embargo, el cultivo de microalgas para producción de biomasa todavía es costoso debido a una gran cantidad de nutrientes inorgánicos utilizados en el medio de cultivo. Estudios han demostrado se puede cultivar las microalgas en efluentes industriales, siendo capaz de asimilar los compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos presentes en el medio, tratando el efluente y produciendo biomasa con un costo menor. La biomasa tiene una vasta aplicación, incluso la producción de biocombustibles. Las microalgas presentan gran potencial para producción de biocombustibles, como biodiésel, biogás, bioaceite, entre otros. A tal sentido, este estudio tiene como objetivo hacer una revisión bibliográfica de los procesos productivos de producción de biomasa de microalgas en efluentes y sus aplicaciones en la producción de biocombustible como una alternativa sustentable para tratar el efluente y producir biocombustibles de forma que minimice las emisiones de CO2.

Palabras clave: microalgas; residuos; biorremediación; biocombustibles.

Biografia do Autor

Sueilha Ferreira de Andrade de Paula , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

Bruna Maria Emerenciano das Chagas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Superintendência de Infraestrutura, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil.

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2023-12-07

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FERREIRA DE ANDRADE DE PAULA , S.; EMERENCIANO DAS CHAGAS, B. M.; ARAÚJO MENDONÇA, R. Utilização de microalgas para o tratamento de efluentes e produção de biocombustível: uma revisão. Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade, [S. l.], v. 12, n. 25, p. 64–93, 2023. DOI: 10.22292/mas.v12i25.1102. Disponível em: https://www.revistasuninter.com/revistameioambiente/index.php/meioAmbiente/article/view/1102. Acesso em: 28 fev. 2024.

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